Land Use And Zoning

  1. Imperative Need For Closer Relationship
  2. Future Land Use Pattern
  3. Present Zoning
  4. Proposed Zoning

Proposed Zoning

This new zoning plan would provide adequately for each land use and would correct many of the obvious disparities between present land use and present zoning. There are two general comparisons that might be made of the proposed zoning ordinance, one with the present ordinance which was approved in 1926, the other with the zoning ordinance (Board Bill No. 30) which failed of adoption in 1940.

The proposed zoning ordinance differs from the existing one in many respects.

  1. It divides the city into eleven districts with specific use, height and area regulations rather than five districts.
  2. Population density regulations are included, based on existing conditions in each neighborhood.
  3. Height limits in outlying residential and commercial areas are reduced.
  4. Off -street parking space is required for two, four and multiple family dwellings, assembly halls and hotels.
  5. Off-street loading is called for in each commercial and industrial building.
  6. The present "Residence District" would become two districts and the "Multiple Dwelling District" three districts.
  7. The present "Commercial District" would be divided into three districts.
  8. The downtown business area is zoned as the Central Business District.
  9. The time limit for the elimination of non-conforming uses in single-family districts is a minimum of five years greater than the U. S. Bureau of Internal Revenue allowance for building amortization in the Federal income tax returns.
  10. Spot zoning is avoided by inserting a clause in each dwelling district providing for certain exceptions.
  11. A Community Unit Plan provision is included for the redevelopment of obsolete and blighted tracts of not less than twenty acres, designated and approved by the Commission.
  12. No building can be erected, altered or constructed for dwelling purposes within "K" Unrestricted District.

Table Number VII
Comparative Summary: Present Land Use And Present And Proposed Zoning
City of St. Louis
Purpose Present Land Use As of April 1, 1945 Present Zoning As of April 1, 1945 Proposed Zoning
Acres Per Cent Acres Per Cent Acres Per Cent
Single-Family Dwellings 7,045.0 28.1 9,814.2 31.6 10,350a 33.4a
Two-Family Dwellings 2,576.1 10.3 - - 5,720a 18.4a
Multiple Dwellings 2,454.3 9.8 6,245.8 20.1 4,065a 13.1a
Institutions, City Property, Parks and Playgrounds a) 6,274.5 25.1 - - - -
Commercial 1,715.0 6.8 3,437.8 11.1 3,185 10.3
Industrial 1,431.0 5.7 4,275.8 13.8 2,510b 8.1b
Unrestricted (Including Railroads) 3,546.5 14.2 7,241.5 23.4 5,185 16.7
Total Net Area 25,042.4 100.0 31,015.1 100.0 31,015 100.0
Streets 8,820.9 - 8,820.9 - 8,821 -
Vacant 5,972.7 - - - - -
Total Gross Area 39,836.0 - 39,836.0 - 39,836 -

a) It is not possible accurately to allocate "Institutions, City Property, Parks and Playgrounds" to specific zoning categories. The proposed zoning of residential areas includes a large portion of the total of these uses.
b) Includes "I" Central Business District, and "J" Industrial District. These districts both allow light industry but differ in height restrictions.

There are some important differences between the proposed zoning ordinance and Board Bill No. 30 which failed of adoption in 1940.

  1. It is proposed to require off-street parking for one car for each twenty-five seats in an assembly hall of 500 square feet or over in size as compared with one car for each four seats.
  2. The proposed ordinance includes churches, schools, cemeteries, parks, farms, playgrounds and museums in residence "A" districts.
  3. Proprietors of boarding houses in "A" and "B" districts must file an affidavit of use and such use shall be prohibited after four years. Board Bill No. 30 required the consent of the owners of two-thirds of the block frontage for the continuance of such a use, which must be discontinued at the expiration of five years.
  4. Non-conforming use of property for another purpose shall constitute an abandonment, providing the new non-conforming use is permitted in a more restricted district. Board Bill No. 30 stated that a non-conforming use discontinued for 180 days must then conform to the use permitted in that district.
  5. The use of premises which becomes non-conforming through a change in the ordinance is prohibited after a prescribed period of time. Board Bill No. 30 permitted its continuance or a change to a use more restricted.
  6. The non-conforming use of land is permitted to continue in accordance with certain time limits as against the discontinuance of non-conforming use within one year.
  7. The Board of Adjustment can determine if two-family dwellings should be permitted in "B" districts when 75 per cent or more frontage is occupied by single-family dwellings. In Board Bill No. 30 permission depended upon the consent of the owners of two-thirds of the frontage.
  8. In "C" districts semi-detached two-family dwellings may be erected if 75 per cent of frontage is occupied by single-family dwellings and if the owners of two-thirds of the frontage approve.
  9. The Community Unit Plan section calls for the redevelopment of blighted and obsolete areas for any approved use rather than for residential purposes only.

Land uses and zoning have been studied in detail for each neighborhood in the city. Table Number VIII shows the number of square feet of land now in use for various purposes in the Lafayette, Fanning and Macklind Neighborhoods, the amount of land now zoned for these purposes, and the amount of land which would be zoned for these purposes by the proposed new zoning plan. Plate Number 6, Number 7, Number 7a and Number 8 show the present land use, present zoning, and proposed zoning in these three neighborhoods.

The Lafayette Neighborhood is an obsolete area for the most part. There is an incongruous inter-mixture of all types of use. The reconstruction of this neighborhood is anticipated by the proposed zoning. Provision is made however for retention of present industrial plants along the northern portion of the area in the vicinity of Chouteau Avenue, for retention of commercial zoning along Jefferson Avenue and for a four-family district along the south fringe.

The Fanning Neighborhood is at the edge of the blighted district. Most of the buildings are in good condition and the area is 82 per cent built up. There is considerable intermingling of the predominent single-family dwellings with two-family and four-family flats and stores. The neighborhood is now zoned for the most part for multiple dwelling purposes, which affords no protection to existing development and gives little or no encouragement for future construction. There is an excess of area zoned commercially. The proposed zoning provides for two-family flat construction in the eastern half of the neighborhood, single-family dwelling construction in the western half as well as for doubling the area now in use for commercial purposes.

The Macklind Neighborhood is predominantly a single-family dwelling area. Since present zoning allows two-family dwelling construction in the most restricted residential district, quite a number of two-family flats and some four-family flats have crept into this area of homes. There is also an enormous excess of area zoned commercially. The proposed zoning would make the area almost entirely single-family with only as much commercial area as would be needed by the total population now resident in this area. The neighborhood is 94 per cent built up and the zoning should correspond more or less precisely with existing land use.

Table Number VIII
Comparison Of Present Land Uses And Present And Proposed Zoning In Three Neighhborhood Districts
Lafayette District Fanning District Macklind District
Per Cent of Land in Each Classification Present Land Use Present Zoning Proposed Zoning Present Land Use Present Zoning Proposed Zoning Present Land Use Present Zoning Proposed Zoning
Single- Family 12.6 16.3 - 40.9 18.1 39.7 75.3 75.2 96.9
Two- Family 19.5 - - 19.3 - 49.9 10.5 -
Multiple Dwelling 25.9 53.8 82.1 10.8 61.7 - 3.1 1.6 -
Institutions & City Property 19.8 - - 10.4 - - 1.7 - -
Commercial 8.3 10.1 6.2 4.3 14.2 9.6 2.6 23.2 3.1
Light Industrial 6.7 19.8 11.7 0.3 6.0 0.8 0.3 - -
Heavy Industrial - - - - - - - - -
Vacant 3.9 - - 14.0 - - 6.5 - -
Total Per Cent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0-

Note: Present land use and present zoning as of April 1,1945.

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