LAND USE AND ZONING PLANS

1918 Zoning for St. Louis - a fundamental part of the City Plan
1918 Height Area and Use Districts and Restrictions
1919 The Zone Plan
1926 Zoning Ordinance of the City of St. Louis, Missouri
1936 Urban Land Policy
1944 Plan for Public Recreational Areas
1948 The Pattern of Industrial Land Use in Saint Louis
1949 Comprehensive Plan - #2 Zoning
1950 Zoning Ordinance of the City of St. Louis Missouri 1950 to November 1955
1956 Land Use Plan
1958 Central Business District Space Use Study
1958 Downtown Land Use Study - Part I
1965 St. Louis Land Use Statistics
1972 Model City Land Use Plan
1980 Zoning Ordinance of the City of St. Louis


1918 ZONING FOR ST. LOUIS:

A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF THE CITY PLAN

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: January 1918

This planning document is essentially a pamphlet that was issued as a preliminary statement of motives that would guide the City Plan Commission in preparing a zoning ordinance for the City of St. Louis. This document reviews the purpose of city planning and advocates the importance of zoning. It was argued that by implementing such an ordinance, the City could regulate haphazard growth, control the height and area of buildings, the uses of properties, and the character of all building developments within the City.

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1918 HEIGHT, AREA AND USE DISTRICTS AND RESTRICTIONS

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: May, 1918

This document is an ordinance that approves for the division of the City of St. Louis into five use districts. In addition, it defines the appropriate height and area restrictions that would be applied to all areas within the St. Louis city limits. Two sets of maps show the details of this ordinance: the use zone maps and the height and area zone maps.

The ordinance outlines the following:

In addition, the ordinance contains explanations of occupancy permits and general provisions:

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1919 THE ZONE PLAN

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: June 1919

This document is a review of the zone plan ordinance of the City of St. Louis. The purpose of this summary of the zone plan was to review the elements that were needed to develop a workable comprehensive zoning ordinance for the City of St. Louis. In determining the feasibility of this ordinance, a review of the zone policies was an essential part of understanding the plan. This review included the discussion of the following: maps and special studies; the nature and application of the restrictions (definitions of all use, height and area districts). In addition, this document cites an essay on the constitutionality of zoning, written by Herbert S. Swan, of the Zoning Committee in New York.

Expert testimony on the importance of zoning was included in this report. Testimonies from businessman, city officers, and realtors were publicized in this report. Several arguments pointed to the importance of a zoning plan for the City of St. Louis. It was said that comprehensive zoning would simplify transportation problems, provide for the conservation of public health, stabilize and regulate growth, aid in public recreation and promote public welfare. Also in the report, several editorial comments on the zoning plan were published so as to provide a well-rounded public view of zoning for St. Louis.

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1926 ZONING ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: May 26, 1926

This document is the Zoning Ordinance of St. Louis, ordinance #35003; it contains two zoning maps: a height and area map and a use district map. This zoning ordinance would regulate and restrict the height, number of stories, type, volume and size of buildings and structures; the size of yards; courts and other open spaces; the location, erection, alteration, and use of buildings and structures; and under the police powers of the City, developments, improvements, and demolitions would be implemented in order to promote the health, safety, morals and general welfare of the City.

This ordinance defines the newly imposed use districts: residence districts, multiple dwelling districts, commercial districts, unrestricted districts, non- conforming use and height and area districts.

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1936 URBAN LAND POLICY

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: October 22, 1936

This report was undertaken in response to significant negative trends in the City of St. Louis. It was designed in order to preserve population, land values and development within the city limits. Three major trends were occurring at this time: population movement out of the City, a decrease in land values and an increase in building demolition. A proposal to reform the zoning practices of the City was outlined in this plan so as to maintain the City's longevity.

The following points indicated the need for zoning reformation:

A constructive urban land policy was proposed and it included the following elements:

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1944 PLAN FOR PUBLIC RECREATIONAL AREAS

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: January 1944

With the revision of the Comprehensive Plan , this plan for public recreational areas was designed to complement the overall plan for the City. The recreational supply and the recreational needs of the St. Louis population were studied in this report so as to determine the types of facilities that would be needed. Several recreational laws or so called modern standards were introduced influencing the structure of this plan. This included highlighting the principles of a comprehensive recreational system.

The recreational principles were based primarily on what the City Plan Commission viewed as best for the St. Louis population with regard to age. The population was broken down by four age groups: small children, school children, youth and adults and a needs assessment was conducted based on age. Recreational facilities like, playgrounds, swimming pools, zoos, boy and girl scout camps, and play areas in parks were in demand for children and youth, while adults needed recreational facilities like community centers, pleasure drives, and large parks.

An assessment of existing recreational facilities became the central focus of this report. Various maps and graphs represented school population distribution (separate maps were made to emphasize the segregated populations i.e. the "White" and "Negro" populations), in addition, the types and locations of current recreational facilities were determined. It was decided, by modern standards, that St. Louis was lacking in almost every recreational facility mentioned. Hence, a proposed recreational plan was introduced. This plan dissected the City by neighborhood's recreational facilities. Virtually every neighborhood park, playground and playfield would need to add acreage and the number of community centers in the City would need to be increased by half in order to comply with the demand for recreational areas.

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1948 THE PATTERN OF INDUSTRIAL LAND USE IN SAINT LOUIS

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: no date listed

This report was prepared by the City Plan Commission, in order to document the past and current industrial land use patterns in the City of St. Louis. The trends of industrial land use were extremely valuable planning tools during the industrial revolution. This document highlights the several elements that determined the patterns of industrial land use in St. Louis City.

The pattern of industrial land use, it was determined, was based primarily on the following factors: the level of manufacturing, the type of industrial specialization, the technological aspects of production, and the local framework, which includes topography, transportation, market for products, raw materials, labor supply etc. This information was valuable in determining development sites for heavy industries, light industries, and the expansion or redevelopment of existing industries throughout the City.

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1949 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN - #2 ZONING

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: no date listed

This purpose of this report was to promote the proposed new zoning ordinance, which at the time was before the Board of Alderman for approval. The proposed zoning ordinance was designed to replace the existing 1926 zoning ordinance, relative to current land use trends. The plan was written as a guide to the use and development of property in hopes of preventing the depreciation of property values and arresting the spread of blight.

In general, this proposed zoning ordinance would do the following:

In addition, the zoning ordinance would be designed to stop the negative urban trends that were occurring throughout the City of St. Louis. The following recommendations were made:

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1950 ZONING ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 1950 - NOV. 1955.

THE COMPREHENSIVE ZONING ORDINANCE #45309 APPROVED APRIL 25, 1950.

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: no date listed

Ordinance #45309 was said to be acting in place of the Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance by amending Part III of the Revised Code of St. Louis - 1948, by repealing sections 3-5 and 7-28 and by replacing new sections known as sections 3-6 and 8-28.

This ordinance outlines and defines the following terms: Definitions of terms relating to zoning; districts and boundaries; general regulations; "A" single-family dwelling district; "B" two-family dwelling district; "C" four-family dwelling district; "E" multiple-family dwelling; "F" local business district; "G" commercial district; "H" commercial district; "I" central business district; "J" industrial use; height and area; board of adjustments; certificate of occupancy; plats; interpretation; purpose and conflict; boundaries and districts; changes and amendments; manner of giving notice of proposed changes; validity; violation; penalty and enforcement.

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1956 LAND USE PLAN

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: no date listed

The proposed Land Use Plan was designed as an additional feature to the Comprehensive City Plan for the City of St. Louis. The plan would be used as a guide for the preservation and the development of private and public property and to show, in map form, where certain activities should be located for the most efficient use of the land.

The plan was designed as a general guide to achieve the following goals:

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1958 CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT SPACE USE STUDY

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: March 1958

Area of Concern: the study extends from the Riverfront to Eighteenth Street, and from Cole to Clark.

This report summarizes the results of a space-use survey of the Central Business District. To be considered a part of the Central Business District, it was determined that a block must have at least fifty per cent of its floor space devoted to a business use. Areas considered a part of the Central Business District were areas of very high land valuation, characterized by high concentration of retail businesses, offices, theaters, hotels and service businesses, and high traffic flow. The purpose of this study was to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the Central Business District so as to understand its decline over the years 1931 - 1955.

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1958 DOWNTOWN LAND USE STUDY - PART 1

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: September 1958

The document focuses on the renewal of St. Louis' Central Business District based on the revision of existing land use patterns. Various subjects were considered as catalysts for change for the downtown area: circulation, parking terminals, zoning, location of public land and buildings, law enforcement and regulations, and urban renewal. This report concentrates on the idea of urban renewal and its potential to alter the land use of the Central Business District.

In addition, this report speculates that through urban renewal, the City could offer parking, space for cultural activity, recreation, office space etc., which in turn would create economic stability and incentive for investment in the City of St. Louis.

Several areas in the Central Business District were highlighted as possible urban renewal area projects:

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1965 ST. LOUIS LAND USE STATISTICS

By: City Plan Commission
Pub: June 1965

This report contains a comprehensive statistical look at St. Louis' variety of land use, according to district. The document contains land use statistics for the years 1950 and 1963 and a comparative analysis of these two statistical summaries. This comparative analysis indicates to some degree the changing composition of each neighborhood and industrial district.

Each series of land use data was divided into the following categories:

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1972 MODEL CITY LAND USE PLAN

By: Prepared for the St. Louis Model City Agency by the St. Louis City Plan Commission in conjunction with residents of the Model City area
Pub: June 19, 1972

The purpose of the Model City program is to demonstrate the potential of this comprehensive approach for significantly reducing unemployment, improving the supply and quality of housing, raising educational levels, reducing cultural and recreational opportunities.

This plan provides a physical framework for implementing all the economic, social and physical development programs designed to upgrade the Model City area. The Model City area consists of the following boundaries: Delmar at Grand, North to St. Louis, North on Jefferson to Palm, East to I-70, or Eleventh, to Delmar, West to the point of beginning.

This area is bounded by five neighborhoods that are located directly Northwest of the Central Business District: Yeatman neighborhood to the very West, Pruitt-Igoe and Montgomery-Hyde Park East of Yeatman, and Carr-Central and Murphy- Blair is East of the above three neighborhoods. This area is known for its historical significance as an area that has housed poor persons for over a century. This Model City Plan, which was considered a redevelopment plan for the City, was designed to correct this trend in poverty.

Several aspects of this comprehensive plan were covered. To obtain employment for all Model City residents and develop a favorable business environment several recommendations were discussed:

To improve the quantity and quality of residential housing for the proposed area. Several recommendations were discussed:

In order to raise the level of education attainment of Model City residents and enable them to compete on an equal basis with residents of the City as whole several suggestions were discussed: to make available educational services to residents of all ages and to improve physical capacity and attractiveness of neighborhood schools.

The final chapter of this document discusses a land use plan for the Model City area. Each neighborhood has a specific land use plan. The purpose of these land use plans, was to provide a framework where by implementation programs could be established.

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1980 ZONING ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF ST. LOUIS

FOR PRESENTATION TO THE BOARD OF ALDERMAN

By: Urban Consultants
For: Community Development Agency of St. Louis, Missouri
Pub: May 1980

This document is a draft of a revised Zoning Ordinance for the City of St. Louis. This draft is the final phase of a project which began in January of 1976. Prior to the completion of this document, preliminary studies looked at the following issues: other cities zoning ordinances; proposed regulations; the current St. Louis Zoning Code adopted in 1950 and suggestions from St. Louis Aldermen, neighborhood planners for the Community Development Agency and citizens groups. Following approval from the Community Development Agency and the Zoning Committee of the Board of Alderman of the City of St. Louis, this document would be sent to the Board of Alderman for confirmation.

This ordinance would comprehensively amend the City of St. Louis' Zoning Code and repeal all other Zoning Ordinances previously adopted. The comprehensive amendment discusses the following articles that make up the revised Zoning Ordinance: general provisions; administration and enforcement; district provisions and fees.

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